3. Identity Element – The numbers 0 and 1 are conceptualized to give the idea of an identity element for a specific operation. Here, 0 is called the identity element for the addition operation, whereas 1 is called the identity element for the multiplication operation.
4. Inverse Elements – The idea of Inverse parts comes up with a negative number. For addition, we write “-a” as the inverse of “a” and for the multiplication, the inverse form is written as “a-1″.
5. Associativity – When integers are added, there is a property known as associativity in which the grouping up of numbers added does not affect the sum. An example, (3 + 2) + 4 = 3 + (2 + 4).